## Specific substrate consumption rate formula

Perfusion Rate Strategy Based on Main Substrate Measurement. The control of the perfusion rate can be based on the consumption of a main substrate present in the medium such as the glucose (Dowd et al. 2001; Wang et al. 2002; Meuwly et al. 2006). From daily glucose concentration measurement, the perfusion rate is increased or decreased in order Rates during the reactor filling phase. The rates of biomass growth (R X), product formation (Rp and R'p) and substrate consumption (Rs and Rs) during the reactor filling phase may be calculated by equations (16) to (20). Equations (7), (17) and (18) give: Otherwise, Equations (6), (16), (19) and (20) lead to Equation (22). Numerical Example The rate of substrate utilization is related to the specific growth rate as follows: r su = −μX/Y. where: X is the total biomass (since the specific growth rate, μ is normalized to the total biomass) Y is the yield coefficient; r su is negative by convention. Substrate limited growth. Substrate disappearance due to both growing and non-growing organisms. Substrate "unlimited" growth. Usually bacterial cultures grow by binary fission in presence of unlimited food O ----> OO ----> OOOO Cell increase rate differential eqn: dX/dt = µX Soln: X = X o e µt . Where: X = cell number or conc µ = specific growth rate

## At this pH value the net specific growth rate was 0.26 h 1, biomass g xylose yield was 0.16 g.g- 1 will provide the substrate consumption and product formation rates. which the following equations can be deduced from Eqs. (4) and (5): ix.dr .

Specific growth rate (Monod) equation calculator - formula & step by step calculation to measure the dependence of the growth rate on the substrate concentration of bacteria or aerobic metabolism. μ = μ max x (S/(K s x S)). where m = specific growth rate (1/X.dX/dt), q = specific substrate utilization/removal rate (1/X .dS/dt), and m = Yq, with Y = true growth yield [mass of biomass (X) synthesized per unit of substrate (S) utilized or removed], S = aqueous phase concentration of the compound, K s = affinity constant or half saturation constant for the the specific growth rate and the substrate consumption rate seem to depend on the external substrate concentration in a way which can be described by a hyperbolic equation, identical to the Michaelis-Menten model for enzyme-catalyzed reactions [4]. Only 40 to 50% of the energy stored in a carbon substrate is converted to biological energy (ATP) during aerobic metabolism. The remainder is released as heat upon conversion to CO 2 and H 2O Energy Balance: Substrate + O 2 CO 2 + H 2O CO 2 + H 2O + Cells Total Available Energy of Substrate I = Energy Released by Growth II + The most widely used expression for describing specific growth rate as a function of substrate concentration is attributed to Monod (1942, 1949). This expression is: (3) Figure 4. Shows conceptually how the Monod equation is fit to the observed substrate and specific growth rate data in Figure 3. Two distinct culture phases were observed in terms of substrate consumption for recombinant cultures (three for their naive counterpart). Higher consumption rates during the exponential growth phase, followed by a drastic decrease of specific consumption (more than 70 %) once the culture entered into the late exponential phase. substrate consumption rate when t ≥ 1.75 h . Table 2 – Calculated values of the fermenting medium volume ( V), dilution rate ( D) and concentrations of substrate [ S ', Equation (6)] and ethanol [ P ', Equation (7)] during the reactor filling phase.

### Theoretically, the substrate consumption rate is described by Eq. (19.17). Neglecting maintenance, the specific rate qS is finally expressed as: As a conclusion, Eq. (19.26) based on the Monod equation presents the advantages to be

Only 40 to 50% of the energy stored in a carbon substrate is converted to biological energy (ATP) during aerobic metabolism. The remainder is released as heat upon conversion to CO 2 and H 2O Energy Balance: Substrate + O 2 CO 2 + H 2O CO 2 + H 2O + Cells Total Available Energy of Substrate I = Energy Released by Growth II + The most widely used expression for describing specific growth rate as a function of substrate concentration is attributed to Monod (1942, 1949). This expression is: (3) Figure 4. Shows conceptually how the Monod equation is fit to the observed substrate and specific growth rate data in Figure 3. Two distinct culture phases were observed in terms of substrate consumption for recombinant cultures (three for their naive counterpart). Higher consumption rates during the exponential growth phase, followed by a drastic decrease of specific consumption (more than 70 %) once the culture entered into the late exponential phase. substrate consumption rate when t ≥ 1.75 h . Table 2 – Calculated values of the fermenting medium volume ( V), dilution rate ( D) and concentrations of substrate [ S ', Equation (6)] and ethanol [ P ', Equation (7)] during the reactor filling phase.

### In the case for Monod equation, specific growth rate is governed equation (Eqn . 1) with substrate consumption rate (Eqn. 4) and yield coefficient (Yxs), the

FV denotes volumetric flow rate, V is the volume of liquid in the bioreactor, CAF - concentration of the limiting substrate (A) in the feeding stream. CA and CB denote substrate A and biomass B concentration in the liquid, respectively. k is maximum specific growth rate and KS is Monod (saturation) constant. When substrate is converted into cell material at rate y, the formula for microbial growth is d x d t = −y d s d t = μ · x = μ m · x · s x K + s x where μ m and μ are the growth rate constant and the specific growth rate respectively. substrates are consumed via catalyzed reactions carried out only by the organisms with the requisite enzymes. Therefore, rates of substrate degradation are generally proportional to the catalyst concentration (concentration of organisms able to degrade the substrate) and Two distinct culture phases were observed in terms of substrate consumption for recombinant cultures (three for their naive counterpart). Higher consumption rates during the exponential growth phase, followed by a drastic decrease of specific consumption (more than 70 %) once the culture entered into the late exponential phase.

## Two distinct culture phases were observed in terms of substrate consumption for recombinant cultures (three for their naive counterpart). Higher consumption rates during the exponential growth phase, followed by a drastic decrease of specific consumption (more than 70 %) once the culture entered into the late exponential phase.

The rate of substrate utilization is related to the specific growth rate as follows: r su = −μX/Y. where: X is the total biomass (since the specific growth rate, μ is normalized to the total biomass) Y is the yield coefficient; r su is negative by convention. Substrate limited growth. Substrate disappearance due to both growing and non-growing organisms. Substrate "unlimited" growth. Usually bacterial cultures grow by binary fission in presence of unlimited food O ----> OO ----> OOOO Cell increase rate differential eqn: dX/dt = µX Soln: X = X o e µt . Where: X = cell number or conc µ = specific growth rate When substrate is the formula for microbial growth is x/S K.S=K,n.S.-1/K+x/s consumption rate constant and the respectively, K a constant and p the converted into cell material at rate y, dt _ydt-u.x-F~m x.K+s/x where jm and ~t are the growth rate constant and the specific growth rate respectively.

In the case for Monod equation, specific growth rate is governed equation (Eqn . 1) with substrate consumption rate (Eqn. 4) and yield coefficient (Yxs), the 3 Jun 2009 S. Additionally, an equation for the specific activity of the desired The specific substrate consumption rate qS is assumed to be mainly. specific rates of glucose, ammonium and oxygen uptake and the specific carbon dioxide evolution rate increased in the cell, with more than 50 % of the ATP consumption reactions and considered metabolites form a set of linear equations.